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types of sentence

types of sentence


What is Sentence
  • A sentence is the largest unit of any language. In English, it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full-step, or a question mark, or an exclamation mark.
  • The sentence is generally defined as a word or a group of words that expresses a through an idea by giving a statement /order or making a question or exclaiming.
Example:
He is a good boy (Statement),
Is he a good boy? (Question)
What a nice weather! (exclaiming)

Ideally, a sentence requires at least one subject and one verb. Sometimes the subject of a sentence can be hidden, but the verb must be visible and present in the sentence. A verb is called the heart of a sentence.
Example:
Do it. (In this sentence, a subject 'you' is hidden but the verb 'do' is visible')

"[ A sentence is a group of words, usually containing a verb, that expresses a thought in the form of a statement, question, instruction or exclamation and starts with a capital letter when written]"

In other words, a complete English sentence must have three characteristics:
  • First, in written form, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period (i.e, a full stop) [.], a note of interrogation (i.e, a question mark) [?], or a note of exclamation (i.e, an exclamation mark) [!]
  • Second, it must contain at least one subject (hidden/visible) and one verb comprising an independent Clause. 

(An Independent clause contains an independent subject and verb expresses a complete thought).

Types of Sentences

Structurally, sentences are of four types:
  • Simple Sentence
  • Compound Sentence
  • Complex Sentence
  • Compound-Complex Sentence 
  1. Simple Sentence    
A simple sentence must have a single clause (a single verb)  which is independent, and it cannot take another clause.
E.g. I always wanted to become a writer. (One clause- one verb)

   2. Compound Sentence

A compound sentence must have more than one independent clause with no dependent clauses. Some specific conjunctions punctuation or both are used to join together these clauses.
E.g. I always wanted to become a writer, and  She wanted to become a doctor. (Two independent clauses-two verbs)

 3. Complex Sentence

A complex sentence also has more than one clause but one them must be an independent clause and the other/others must be (a) dependent clause (es). There are also some particular connectors for the clauses of a complex sentence to be connected.
For example:- I know that you always wanted to be a writer.  (Here, a dependent clause is followed by a connector and an independent clause. The other way around is also possible.

4. Compound-Complex Sentence

A compound-complex sentence (or complex-compound sentence) is a mixture of the features of the compound and complex sentences in one sentence. So, it must contain at least two independent clauses and at least one independent clause.
For example:- I know that you always wanted to become a writer, but I always wanted to become a doctor.
(Here, one dependent clause is followed by a complex connector and two independent clauses with compound conjunction between them.)


Functionally, Sentences are of mainly four types:

  • Declarative Sentence
  • Imperative Sentence
  • Interrogative Sentence
  • Exclamatory Sentence

1. Declarative Sentence: 

An assertive sentence( declarative sentence) simply expresses an opinion/ feeling or makes a statement or describes things. In other words, it declares something. This type of sentence ends with a period (i.e. a full-stop). 
For e.g., I want to be a good cricketer (a statement)
 I am very happy today. ( a feeling)

2.Imperative Sentence:

We use an imperative sentence to make a request or to give a command. Imperative sentences usually end with a period. (i.e. a full stop .), but under certain circumstances, it can end with a note of exclamation (i.e., exclamation mark !).
  • For e.g. Please sit down.
  • I need you to sit down now!

3.Interrogative Sentence:

An interrogative sentence asks a question. Interrogative sentences must end with a note of interrogation (i.e. question mark ?)
For e.g. When are you going to submit your assignment?
Do you know him?

4. Exclamatory Sentence:

An exclamatory sentence expresses the overflow of emotions. These emotions can be happiness, wonder, sorrow, anger, etc. 
E.g. What a day it was.
I cannot believe he would do that.
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