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rules of articles in english grammar

rules of articles in english grammar

ERRORS IN USE OF ARTICLES
USE OF AN

1.  Before words beginning with vowels sounds [a, e, I, o, u are called vowels, others are consonants].
 Example- an apple, an egg, an owl.
2.  Before words beginning with silent ‘h’ but sounds like a vowel. Example- an hour, an honorable man, an heir, an honest man.
3.  F, H, L, M, N, R, S, X are letters that are not vowels but begin with vowels sound 'M' has the sound of ‘em’. So, ‘an’ is used before abbreviations beginning with vowels of these letters.

USE OF ‘A’

1.  In the sense of one. E.g. he couldn’t speak a word to save himself. With ‘one’ (since ‘one’ begins with the sound of ‘w’) e.g. a one-man show, a one-rupee note.
2.  Before words beginning with consonant sound e.g. a boy, a box, a dog.
3.  With vowel letters having consonant value. E.g. a university, a unique article, a euphemism, a unit, a European language
4.  With units and rate (per). E.g. he earns rupees five hundred a month.
5.  In exclamatory expressions before singular countable nouns. E.g. What a pretty girl!
6. When two subjects or articles are thought of as a single unit. E.g. He was ready with a cup and saucer.
7.  With certain expressions of quantity. E.g. a lot of, a dozen, a great deal of, a couple.
8. With a person’s name to indicate that the person is perhaps unknown to the person addressed. E.g. A Mr. Roy is at the door.
9. With a special meal (to celebrate something or in someone’s honor).e.g. I called my friends to lunch to celebrate my success.
10. To make a common noun of a proper noun. E.g. This man is ‘a second Newton’ (This phrase means ‘a philosopher as great as Newton’)

USE OF ‘THE’

1. When we speak of a particular person or thing already referred to.
    e.g. I dislike the follow.
2. When a singular noun represents a whole class.                                
    e.g. The mango is considered the king among fruits.
3. With the name of
   I.  Gulfs, rivers, oceans, islands, and mountains
      E.g. the Himalayas, the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, the Red sea,
     The Andaman Islands, the Brahmaputra river.
 II. Certain books
      E.g. the Vedas, the Puranas, the bible, the Ramacharitmanas
 III. Musical Instruments
      E.g. the flute, the violin, the table
 IV. The inventions 
     E.g.  I hate the telephone for its constant ringing
   V. Parts of body
      E.g.  He was wounded in the leg.
 VI. Religious groups
E.g.  the Sikhs, the Hindus, the Parsees
VII. Names enforcing law
E.g. the police, the navy, the Air Force
VIII. Political parties
E.gthe congress, the Janata Party, the B.J.P
 IX.  Airplanes, ships, trains, etc
 E.g. the Makalu (airplane), the Vikrant (ship), the Rajdhani express (train)
   X. Before names of an empire, dynasty or historical event
E.g. the Gupta dynasty, the old stone  age, the First World War, The American Revolution.
 XI.  Clubs, foundations, etc.
E.g. the Lion’s Club, the Ford Foundation
XII. Before common nouns denoting unique things
E.g. the sun, the sky, the earth, the worl.
XIII. With superlatives
 E.g. He is the best boy in the class.
XIV. With ordinals
E.g. He took the first taxi that came his way.
XV.  Before the comparatives degree
E.g. The more they get, the more they want.
XVI. Before an adjective when the noun is understood
 E.g. The poor would favor him.
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